Cognitive Theory


Problem-Based Learning

Project-Based Learning

Theoretical Resources

References for Theories

Behaviorism as a Learning Theory
Provides information on the development of behaviorist learning theories and the effect that behaviorism has on instructional technology. University of Houston at Clear Lake, Instructional Technology Department, 1995.

The Behavioral System
Discusses four types of behavioristic learning theories and associated terminology

Dr. Huitt, Dept of Psychology, Counseling and Guidance, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA, 1998. foundational page with link to Systems Model of Human Behavior

About Learning/Theories
by Fuunderstanding, 1998. Offers a search engine to find information about learning theories, designing schools and instruction, and how to determine if learning has occurred.

Criterion Referenced Instruction (R. Mager)
The Theory Into Practice Database, Greg Kearsley, 1994, 99. Ō Describes principles and characteristics of Criterion Referenced Instruction.

BloomĖs Taxonomy (B. Bloom)
DLRN Technology Resource Network. Briefly describes BloomĖs Taxonomy and how distance learning technologies can be utilized in instruction based upon BloomĖs Taxonomy.

BloomĖs Taxonomy and GronlundĖs General Instructional Objectives
University of Portsmouth. Relates BloomĖs Taxonomy and GronlundĖs General Instructional Objectives in a table format.

Cognitive Theory

Cognitive Development
Discusses PiagetĖs study into cognitive processes and the stages of cognitive development.

Cognitive/Learning Styles
The Theory Into Practice Database, Greg Kearsley, 1994, 99. Ō Describes characteristics of cognitive styles.

Constructivist Theory (J. Bruner)
The Theory Into Practice Database, Greg Kearsley, 1994, 99. ŌDiscusses the constructivist theory formed by Bruner which states that learning is an active process where the learner constructs new concepts based upon his/her prior knowledge.

Conditions of Learning (R. Gagne)
The Theory Into Practice Database, Greg Kearsley, 1994, 99.-Discusses GagneĖs 5 major categories of learning and instructional implications. Includes a video clip of Gagne discussing his work.

Subsumption Theory (D. Ausebel)
The Theory Into Practice Database, Greg Kearsley, 1994, 99.-Discusses and clarifies AusebelĖs subsumption theory and his promotion of advanced organizers.


The University of Colorado at Denver, School of Education, 1999. Provides links to definitions and readings on constructivist theories.

Constructivism Theory
CSCL Theories, Jy Wana Daphne Lin Hsiao, University of Texas. Brief discussion of the constructivist theory.

Constructivism Theory
by Fuunderstanding, 1998. Breaks constructivism down and lists its implications on learning.

Learning Theory Funhouse. Brief discussion of definition, explanation and implications of constructivism.

Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky)
The Theory Into Practice Database, Greg Kearsley, 1994, 99.-Discusses the two major aspects of VygotskyĖs theory Ō the role of social interaction on cognitive development and the "zone of proximal development."

Vygotsky and Social Cognition
About Theories/Learning, by Fuunderstanding, 1998.Discusses the definition, explanation and impacts upon learning of VygotskyĖs Social Cognition theory.

Have to check this site again. Dewey: http://www.siu.edu/~deweyctr/

References for Problem-Based Learning

Brown, B.L., 1998. Using Problem-solving Approaches in Vocational Education. EDRS Availability.

Shepherd, A. & Cosgriff, B. 1998. Problem-Based Learning: A Bridge Between Planning Education and Planning Practice. Journal of Planning Education and Research, v17, n4, 348-57.

Graham, W. & Legere, S.M. 1998. Four sides to every story: Creating Effective Multimedia Business Simulations. Journal of Instructional Delivery Systems. V12, n3, 3-8.

Martin, K.J., Chrispeels, J.H. & DĖEmidio-Caston, M. 1998. Exploring the Use of Problem-Based Learning for Developing Collaborative Leadership Skills. Journal of School Leadership, v 8, n5, 470-500.

Web-based references:

For more information on Problem-based learning:


Advantages and key concepts of problem-based learning.


A description of PBL and the essentials necessary to make a curriculum change to PBL.


A description of a PBL teaching unit composed of two web-based activities.

Links to PBL projects in a variety of fields:

Combining Distance Learning and PBL with a Multimedia Approach in Biotechnology.


Interactive Multimedia courseware and the Dental curriculum of the year 2000.


Use of the computer-based multimedia as a tool in a modified problem-based learning activity for Pharmacology.


A prototype medical problem solving case study with multimedia software system.

References for Project-Based Learning

This site is a valuable resource for those interested in Project-based learning. It contains an overview, definitions, a handbook for implementation, and sample uses of project-based learning.

This site is a more practical guide to implementing Project-based learning in the classroom. It also provides a listserve for those who want to become more involved.

This site provides a general overview of project-based Learning, but it also provides a valuable section on assessment of students when using Project-based learning.

The name of this site is "The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project: Project-Based Learning with Multimedia". This site provides the overview of the project-based learning, the combination of project-based learning and multimedia, the guide for assessing the outcome of project-based learning, and classroom examples. It also provides sample lessons based on the project-based learning for students from elementary to high school in a variety of subject areas.

This site describe the ROCK project , which is an outcome of the project-based learning. It describes what they did, when they did, and how they did to produce the product.

This web-site provides the information about Dr. Liu. It provides electronic syllabi of her classes, projects her classes have done, publications, etc.

This web-site provides information about class called "Interactive Multimedia Design & Production". It provides what this course is about, class projects, and multimedia resources.

This is homepage of University of Texas at Austin. It provides a variety of information about UT.

This site provides information about Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) of Vygotsky. It also presented its implication to education.

This site provides information about Cognitive Apprenticeship. It provides some articles or papers related to cognitive apprenticeship and its implication to education.

Liu, M. (1998). A study of engaging high-school students as multimedia designers in a cognitive apprenticeship-style learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 14(3), 387-415.

Liu, M. (1998). The effect of hypermedia authoring on elementary school studentsĖ creative thinking. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 19(1), 27-51.

Liu, M., & Rutledge, K. (1997). The effects of a "learner as multimedia designer" environment on at-risk high school studentsĖ motivation and learning of design knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 145-177.

Liu, M. & Pedersen, S. (1998). The effect of being hypermedia designer on elementary school studentsĖ motivation and learning of design knowledge. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 9(2), 155-182.