Refereed Journal Articles/Book Chapters

(* indicates co-authors are current or former students)

1. Learning Analytics and Data Visualization

Liu, M., McKelroy*, Corliss*, S., & Carrigan, J. (2017). Investigating The Effect of An Adaptive Learning Intervention on Students’ Learning. Educational Technology Research & Development (ETRD) journal.

Kang*, J., Liu, M., Qu*, W. (2017). Using Gameplay Data to Examine Learning Behavior Patterns in a Serious Game. Computers in Human Behavior.

Kang*, J., Liu*, S., & Liu, M. (2017). Tracking Students’ Activities in Serious Games, In F. Q. Lai & J. D. Lehman (Eds.) Learning and Knowledge Analytics in Open Education (pp. 125-137). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Retrieved from

Liu, M., Lee*, J., Kang*, & Liu*, S. (2016). What we can learn from the data: A multiple-case study examining behavior patterns by students with different characteristics in using a serious game. The Technology, Knowledge and Learning journal. 21(1), 33-57. DOI: 10.1007/s10758-015-9263-7


2. Designing and Researching Immersive Learning Environments and Related Factors

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Kang*, J., Kimmons*, R. and Lee*, J. (2016). Making Learning Fun: An Investigation of Using a Ludic Simulation for Middle School Space Science. In Dubbels (Ed.) Transforming Gaming and Computer Simulation Technologies across Industries (pp. 130-152), Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Liu, M., Su, S. Liu*, S., Harron*, J., Fickert*, C., and Sherman, B. (2016). Exploring 3D Immersive and Interactive Technology for Designing Educational Learning Experiences, In F. M., Neto, R. de Souza, & A.S. Gome, (Eds.) Handbook of Research on 3-D Virtual Environments and Hypermedia for Ubiquitous Learning (pp. 243-261). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Liu, M., Kang*, J., Lee*, J, Winzeler*, E., & Liu*, S. (2015). Examining through visualization what tools learners access as they play a serious game for middle school science. In C. S. Loh, Y. Sheng, & D. Ifenthaler (Eds.) Serious Games Analytics: Methodologies for Performance Measurement, Assessment, and Improvement (pp. 181-208), Switzerland: Springer, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-05834-4.

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Lee*, J., Kang*, J., Rosenblum*, J., O’Hair*, M. & Lu*, C. W. (2014). Creating a Multimedia Enhanced Problem-Based Learning Environment for Middle School Science: Voices from the Developers. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 8(1)Available at:

Liu, M., Rosenblum*, J., Horton*, L., & Kang*, J. (2014). Designing Science Learning with Game-Based Approaches. Computers in the School, 31(1/2), 84-102. DOI:10.1080/07380569.2014.879776

Liu, M. (2014). Motivating Students to Learn Using A Game-Based Learning Approach. Texas Education Review, 2(1), 112-128. Available online at

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Kang*, J., Kimmons*, R. and Lee*, J. (2013). Using a Ludic Simulation to Make Learning of Middle School Space Science Fun. The International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 5(1). 66-86. DOI: 10.4018/jgcms.2013010105

Liu, M., Yuen*, T. T. Horton*, L., Lee*, J., Toprac*, P. and Bogard*. T. (2013). Designing Technology-Enriched Cognitive Tools To Support Young Learners’ Problem Solving. The International Journal of Cognitive Technology. 18(1). 14-21.

Bogard*, T., Liu, M., & Chiang*, Y. H (2013). Thresholds of Knowledge Development in Complex Problem Solving: A Multiple-Case Study of Advanced Learners’ Cognitive Processes. Educational Technology Research and Development. 61(3), 465-503. DOI 10.1007/s11423-013-9295-4

Liu, M., Wivagg*, J. Geurtz*, R., Lee*, S. T. & Chang*. M. (2012). Examining How Middle School Science Teachers Implement A Technology Enriched Problem-Based Learning Environment. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning. 6(2), 46-84.

Kimmons*, R., Liu, M., Kang*, J. & Santana*, L. (2011-2012). Attitude, Achievement, and Gender in a Middle School Science-based Ludic Simulation for Learning. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 40(4), 341-370.

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Olmanson*, J. & Toprac*, P. (2011). A Study of Learning and Motivation in A New Media Enriched Environment For Middle School Science, Educational Technology Research and Development (ETR&D), 59(2), 249-266. doi:10.1007/s11423-011-9192-7.

Wang*, P. Y, Vaughn, B. K., & Liu, M. (2011) The impact of animation interactivity on novices’ learning of introductory Statistics, Computers & Education56(1), 300-311.

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Toprac*, P. & Yuen*. T. (2011). Examining the Design of Media Rich Cognitive Tools as Scaffolds in a Multimedia Problem-Based Learning Environment, In M. Orey, S. A. Jones, & R. M. Branch (Eds.), Educational Media and Technology Yearbook (EMTY), 36. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-1305-9_10. New York: Springer.

Yuen*, T., & Liu, M. (2010). A cognitive model of how interactive multimedia authoring facilitates conceptual understanding of object-oriented programming in novices. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 22(3), 329-356.

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Corliss*, S. B., Svinicki, M. D., Bogard*, T., Kim*, J., & Chang*, M. (2009). Students’ problem-solving as mediated by their cognitive tool use: A study of tool use patterns, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 40(1), 111-139.

Liu, M., Toprac*, P., & Yuen*, T(2009). What factors make a multimedia learning environment engaging: A case study.In R. Zheng, (Ed.) Cognitive Effects of Multimedia Learning (pp. 173-192)Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc.

Liu, M., Horton*, L., Olmanson*, J. & Wang*, P. Y. (2008). An Exploration of Mashups and Their Potential Educational Uses.Computers in the School, 25(3/4), 243-258.

Hsieh*, P. H., Cho*. Y., Liu, M., & Schallert, D. L. (2008). Examining the interplay between middle school students’ achievement goals and self-efficacy in a technology-enhanced learning environment. American Secondary Education Journal36(3), 33-50.

Li*, R. & Liu, M. (2008). The Effects of Using A Computer Database Tool on Middle School Students’ Cognitive Skill Acquisition in A Multimedia Learning Environment. In R. Kobayashi, (Ed.)New Educational Technology (pp.67-88)Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Li*, R. & Liu, M. (2007). Understanding the effects of databases as cognitive tools in a problem-based multimedia learning environment. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 18(3), 345-363.

Liu, M., Hsieh*, P., Cho*, Y. J. & Schallert, D. L. (2006). Middle school students’ self-efficacy, attitudes, and achievement in a computer-enhanced problem-based learning environment. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 17(3). 225-242.

Bera*, S. & Liu, M. (2006). Cognitive tools, individual differences, and group processing as mediating factors in a hypermedia environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(2). 295-319.

Hao*, Y. W. & Liu, M. (2006). Students’ Attitudes toward online interaction. Academic Exchange Quarterly.10(4), 74-79.

Liu, M (2005). The effect of a hypermedia learning environment on middle school students’ motivation, attitude, and science knowledge. Computers in the Schools, 22(3/4), 159-171.

Liu, M, & Bera*, S. (2005). An analysis of cognitive tool use patterns in a hypermedia learning environment.Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(1), 5-21.

Liu, M., Bera*, S., Corliss*, S., Svinicki, M., & Beth*, A. (2004). Understanding the connection between cognitive tool use and cognitive processes as used by sixth graders in a problem-based hypermedia learning environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31(3), 309-334.

Liu, M. (2004). Examining the performance and attitudes of sixth graders during their use of a problem-based hypermedia learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior. 20 (3), 357-379.

Liu, M. (2003). Enhancing learners’ cognitive skills through multimedia design. Interactive Learning Environments. 11(1), 23-39.

Pedersen*, S. & Liu, M. (2003). Teachers’ beliefs about issues in the implementation of a student-centered learning environment. Educational Technology Research and Development. 51(2), 57-76.

Liu, M. & Y. P. Hsiao*. (2002). Middle school students as multimedia designers: A project-based learning approach. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 13(4), 311-337.

Liu, M, Williams*, D., & Pedersen*, S. (2002). Alien Rescue: A problem-based hypermedia learning environment for middle school science. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 30(3), 255-270.

Pedersen*, S. & Liu, M. (2002). The transfer of problem-solving skills from a problem-based learning environment: the effect of modeling an expert’s cognitive processes. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 35(2), 303-320.

Pedersen*, S. & Liu, M. (2002). The effects of modeling expert cognitive strategies during problem-based learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 26(4), 353-380.

Liu, M., Papathanasiou*, E., & Hao*, Y. (2001). Exploring the use of multimedia examinations in teaching and learning for undergraduate education: results from fielding testing. Computers in Human Behavior. 17(3), 225-248.

Liu, M, & Pedersen*, S. (1998). The effect of being hypermedia designers on elementary school students’ learning of design knowledge. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 9(2), 155-182.

Williams*, D, Pedersen*, S., & Liu, M. (1998). An evaluation of the use of problem-based learning software by middle school students. Journal for Universal Computer Science4(4), 466-483.

Liu, M. (1998). The effect of hypermedia authoring on elementary school students’ creative thinking skills.Journal of Educational Computing Research. 19(1), 27-51.

Liu, M. (1998). A Study of Engaging High School Students as Multimedia Designers in Cognitive Apprenticeship-Style Learning Environment. Computers in Human Behavior. 14 (3), 387-415.

Liu, M. (1997/1998). Interactive multimedia in an informal setting: The use of a multimedia information kiosk by university students. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 26(1), 35-53.

Liu, M. & Rutledge*, K. (1997). The effect of a “learner as multimedia designer” environment on at-risk high school students’ motivation and learning of design knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 145-177.

Liu, M. (1997). The effects of HyperCard programming on teacher education students’ problem-solving ability and computer anxiety. Journal of Research on Computing in Education,29(3), 248-262.

Jones*, M. & Liu, M. (1997). Introducing interactive multimedia young children: A case study of how two-year-olds interact with the technology.Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 8(4), 313-343.

Liu, M. (1996). An exploratory study of how pre-kindergarten children use the interactive multimedia technology: Implications for multimedia software design. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 7 (1/2), 71-92.

Reed, W. M., Ayersman, D. J., & Liu, M. (1996). The effect of students’ computer-based prior experiences and instructional exposures on the application of hypermedia-related mental models. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 14(2), 175-197.

Liu, M. (1995). Contextual enrichment through hypermedia technology: Implications for second language learning. Computers in Human Behavior11(3/4), 439-450.

Liu, M. & Reed, W. M. (1995). The effect of Hypermedia-assisted-instruction on second language learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research.12(2), 159-175.

Liu, M., Ayersman, D. J., & Reed, W. M. (1995). Perceptions of a hypermedia environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(3/4), 411-428.

Reed, W. M., Ayersman, D. J., & Liu, M. (1995). The effects of three different hypermedia courses on students’ attitudes. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(3/4), 495-510.

Reed, W. M., Ayersman, D. J., & Liu, M. (1995). The effect of hypermedia instruction on stages of concern of students with varying authoring language and hypermedia prior experience. Journal of Research on Computing in Education27(3), 297-317.

Liu, M. & Reed, W. M. (1994). The relationship between the learning strategies and learning styles in a Hypermedia environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 10 (4), 419-434.

Liu, M. (1994). Hypermedia-assisted-instruction and second language learning: A semantic-network-based approach. Computers in the Schools, 10(3/4), 293-312.

Reed, W. M. & Liu, M. (1994). The comparative effects of BASIC programming versus HyperCard programming on problem-solving, computer anxiety and performance. Computers in the Schools, 10(1/2), 27-46.

Liu, M., Reed, W. M., & Phillips, P. D. (1992). Teacher education students and computers: Gender, major, use, occurrence, and anxiety. Journal of Research on Computing in Education24(4), 457-467.


3. Examining Mobile Technology for Teaching and Learning

Liu, M., Navarrete*, C., Scordino*, R., Kang*, J. Ko*, Y. J., and Lim*, M. H. (2016). Examining teachers’ use of iPads: Comfort level, perception, and use. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 48(3), 159-180.

Liu, M., Scordino*, R., Geurtz*, R, Navarrete*, C., Ko*, Y. J., and Lim*, M. H. (2014). A Look at Research on Mobile Learning in K-12 Education From 2007 to PresentJournal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(4), 325-372. DOI:10.1080/15391523.2014.925681

Liu, M. Navarrete*, C. C., and Wivagg*, J. (2014). Potentials of Mobile Technology for K-12 Education: An Investigation of iPod touch Use for English Language Learners in the United States. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(2), 115-126.

Liu, M. Navarrete*, C. C., Maradiegue*, E., and Wivagg*, J. (2014). Mobile Learning and English Language Learners: A Case Study of Using iPod Touch As a Teaching and Learning Tool. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 25(3).

Liu, M., Navarrete*, C. C., Maradiegue*, E., and Wivagg*, J. (2014). A Multiple-Case Study Examining Teachers’ Use of iPod Touches in Their Pedagogical Practices for English Language Learners, In D. McConatha, C. Penny, J. Schugar & D. L. Bolton (Eds.) Mobile Pedagogy and Perspectives on Teaching and Learning (pp. 165-185), IGI-Global Publishing. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4333-8.ch010

Liu, M., Geurtz*, R, Karam*, A., Navarrete*, C. and Scordino*, R. (2013). Research on Mobile Learning in Adult Education. In W. Kinuthia & S. Marshall (Eds.) On the Move: Mobile Learning for Development, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Liu, M., Wivagg*, J. Maradiegue*, E., and Navarrete*, C. C. (2013). Affordances and Challenges of Using iPods to Support Learning by English Language Learners at the Middle School Level, In P. M. Pumilia-Gnarini, E. Favaron, E. Pacetti, J. Bishop & L. Guerra (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Didactic Strategies and Technologies for Education: Incorporating Advancements (pp. 275-288), IGI-Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2122-0.ch023.


4. Understanding MOOCs as An Emerging Online Learning Tool

Liu, M., McKelroy*, E., Kang*, J. Harron*, J., & Liu*, S. (2016). Examining the use of Facebook and Twitter as an additional social space in a MOOC. The American Journal of Distance Education, 30((1), 14-26. DOI: 10.1080/08923647.2016.1120584

Liu, M., Kang*, J., McKelroy*, E., Harron*, J., and Liu*, S. (2016). Investigating Students’ Interactions with Discussion Forums, Facebook, and Twitter in a MOOC and Their Perceptions. In Khan, (Ed.) Revolutionizing Modern Education through Meaningful E-Learning Implementation (pp. 118-41), Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Liu, M., Kang*, J. & McKelroy*, E. (2015). Examining learners’ perspective of taking a MOOC: Reasons, excitement, and perception of usefulness. Educational Media International Journal, 52(2). DOI:10.1080/09523987.2015.1053289

Liu, M., Kang*, J., Cao*, M. W, Lim*, M. H., Ko*, Y. J., Myers*, R., & Schmitz Weiss, A. S. (2014). Understanding MOOCs as an Emerging Online Learning Tool: Perspectives From the Students. The American Journal of Distance Education. 28(3). 147-159. DOI: 10.1080/08923647.2014.926145


5. Web 2.0, Second Language Learning & Instructional Design 

Liu, M., Abe*, K., Cao*, M. W., Liu*, S., Ok*, D. U., Park*, J. B., Parrish*, C., & Sardegna, V. G. (2015). An Analysis of Social Network Websites for Language Learning: Implications for Teaching and Learning English as a Second LanguageThe Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALICO) journal, 32(1). Retrieved 21 February, 2015, from

Liu, M., Evans*, M., Horwitz, E., Lee*, S. McCrory*, M., J. Park*, and Parrish* C. (2013). A Study of the Use of Social Network Sites for Language Learning By University ESL Students. In M. Lamy & K. Zourou (Eds.) Social networking for language education (pp. 137-157), NY, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Liu, M., Kalk*, D., Kinney*, L., & Orr*, G. (2012). Web 2.0 and Its Use in Higher Education from 2007-2009: A Review of Literature. International Journal on E-Learning (IJEL), 11(2), 153-179.

Stevenson*, M. P. & Liu, M. (2010). Learning a Language with Web 2.0: Exploring the Use of Social Networking Features of Foreign Language Learning Web sites. CALICO Journal, 27(2), 233-259.

Liu, M., Traphagan*, T., Huh*, J., Koh*, Y. I., & Choi*, G., & McGregor*, A. (2008). Designing Web sites for ESL learners: A usability testing study.CALICO Journal, 25(2), 207-240.

Shih*, Y. H. & Liu, M. (2008). The importance of Emotional Usability. Journal of Educational Technology System36(2), 203-218.

Liu, M., Kishi, C., & Rhoads, S(2007). Strategies & heuristics for novice instructional designers as they work with faculty content experts in a university settingIn M. Keppell, (Ed.) Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice (pp.36-67)Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc.

Liu, M., Gibby*, S., Quiros*, O., & Demps*, E. (2002). Challenges of being an instructional designer for new media development: A view from the practitioners. Journal of Educational Hypermedia and Multimedia, 11(3), 195-219.

Liu, M., Moore, Z., Graham*, L., & Lee*. S. (2002). A look at the research on computer-based technology use in second language learning: review of literature from 1990-2000. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(3), 250-273.

Liu, M., Jones*, C., & Hemstreet*, S. (1998). A study of the multimedia design and production process by the practitioners. Journal of Research on Computing in Education. 30(3), 254-280.

McDaniel, K. & Liu, M. (1996). A study of project management techniques for developing interactive multimedia programs: A practitioner’s perspective. Journal of Research on Computing in Education29(1), 29-48.



Edited Book

Reed, W. Michael, Burton, John K. & Liu, Min. (Eds.). (1994).Multimedia and Megachange: New Roles for Educational Computing, New York: Haworth Press.


Edited Journal Special Issue

Reed, W. M., Ayersman, D., & Liu, Min. (Eds.) (1995). Hypermedia: Theory, Research and Application. [Special issue]. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(3/4).